高考英语完形填空解题技巧1_图文


完型填空试题主要特点:
1. 通常从一篇250词左右,夹叙夹议的文 章中设空20个,首句不挖空; 2. 干扰项设计严密.一般情况下,四个选 项的词性相同或属于同等或对等范畴,干 扰项填入后在语法上并不存在错误,对考 生有很大的迷惑作用; 3.突出语篇(语境),强调应用,注重交际; 4.大多富有积极的教育意义,给人以人生 的启迪或是充满了生活情趣;

6考查单词以实词(v.,n.,adj.,adv,pron.)为主, 虚词(conj.,prep.)为辅。实词一般占80%90%,其中又以动、名、形为主。 7.以考查学生对文章的整体理解和词汇的意 义把握为主。有些要结合常识才能正确选 项;有些甚至要求在通篇理解的基础上, 正确把握上下文的逻辑关系,才能正确判 断和选择。

为什么我们在这一题型上总是失分较多?
1.没有严格遵循答题步骤:很多考生一拿到 完形填空题就急于选择答案,不认真分析 通篇文章,单纯求快,忽略语篇理解,只 看局部的词义辨析、搭配和语法结构。表 面上解题速度挺快,但是这种见树不见林 的做法只会影响解题的质量和效率。

切记:一定要用2-3分钟时间先进行缺词
阅读,弄清文章大意和基本脉络后再着 手逐个填空.

2. 不注意积累答题技巧:

a.忽略文章首句的提示作用; b.忽略文章中上下文之间的照应关系;
c.遇到长句不注意分析句子结构,在 语义模糊时抱碰运气的心理随意作出 选择.

3.时间安排不当:在几个选项上过分纠 缠,追求完美,导致许多本可以做出 的题来不及做。
切记:正确的做法是由易到难,先做会做
的,再考虑较难的。 强烈推荐:如尚有几题题目不确定可将某 题的可能的两项填入空格, 然后快速地整 句整段地默读, 选择某一项习惯或短语或 动宾搭配读起来较流畅的.

正确的完形填空的解题步骤
把握整体 具体分析

细读首句,跳过空格,通读全文, 把握大意 结合选项,综合考虑,初定答案 瞻前顾后,先易后难, 个个击破

再读全文,反复检查

细读文章的第一句话
高考完形填空选文的第一句话通常是 完整的 。该句 往往就 是主题 句 (Topic Sentence),这就为我们理解文章的内 在联系提供了一个“窗口”,它的句意 往往为全文提供中心信息,能直接概括 全文大意、揭示主题。

充分重视首句的标示作用,利用它为 解题找到一个突破口,据此展开思维, 争取开局胜利。

? 对于叙事,描述类文章。短文的首句, 往往点明故事发生的人物(who),时间 (when),地点(where),和事件 (what)等背景情况。例: It was a busy morning,about 8:30,when an elderly gentleman in his 80s came to the hospital . …… 2010全国卷(I)

对于论述文,首句表明了论述的 主题。起到揭示主题的作用。例如: A man who knows how to write a personal letter has a very powerful tool. A letter can be enjoyed, read and 21 . ……………. 2010全国卷(II)

解题方法:
总的原则: “先完意,后完形”。 八字方针:上下求索,瞻前顾后。 三步曲:读——填——读

三步答题
Step1 Skip(跳读) the passage to get the general idea and pay attention to the first sentence. In the cloze test, there is no blank in the first sentence (首句). It helps us to know the topic of the whole passage. (完形填空首句不挖空,帮助进入语境)

Step2 Reread and choose the best answer for each blank by using some methods. (在把握语篇大意的基础上,借助于一些恰当 的方法选择最佳答案)

Four methods(四种常用的方法):
1、context (上下文语境) 2、word distinctions or collocations (词语辨析和固定搭配) 3、information given in the passage (利用文章中的信息---原词复现、近义词和 反义词等) 4、cultural background and common sense (文化背景和常识)

Step3 Read the passage again and check the

answers.

(将所选定的词放到文章中复读检查)

Tips: 1. the tense and the voice,the accord between subject and predicate (时态语态,主谓语在上下文的中是否一致) 2. grammar and collocations (语法和习惯用法的搭配在上下文中是否一致) 3. the connection between sentences and paragraphs (段与段,句与句之间的衔接是否连贯) 4. the meaning of the whole passage (整体上检查结构、语义及逻辑是否一致,上下 文的衔接是否合理)

结合选项
词汇题

高考完形填空 考什么?

句际关系

篇章结构 (语境)

词汇题

1.复现

1.( 2010北京卷)Mrs. Neidl would ask me for my 37 . She wanted to know how I thought …… She believed I had opinions, so I began to ……. opinions 37. A.opinion B.impression C.information D.intention

语境-原词重现

2. (2010陕西卷) I had some 28 in my pocker, but I would not give them to him, thinking to myself he would 29 ( only) use the money to feed his addiction to drugs or alcohol. 28. A. chocolates B. coins C. tins D. drugs
语境-同义词、近义词复现

?

2.词语的习惯用法

和固定搭配

3. (2010全国I) …The nurse had him take a 36 in the waiting area, 37(telling) him it would be at least 40 minutes 38(before) someone would be able to see him . 36 A. breath B. test C. seat D. break 语境-固定搭配

3.根据词汇的

意义及用法辨析词义

4.(2010江苏卷) My father 36 me to her with these words:“I would like you to meet the fellow who is …… 36.A.rushed B.sent C.carried D.introduced 语境-词义辨析 5.(2010全国I)The happiest people don’t 53(necessarily ) have the best of everything;they just 54 the best of everything they have . 54 A. learn B make C.favor D.try 语境-词义辨析

4.根据生活常识

及文化背景知识进行选择

6. I made my sandwich that afternoon while waiting for Cassie. 39 the butter-cream gave me an idea. A. Spreading B. Boiling C. Baking D. Holding

生活常识

句际关系

1.语法手段 2.逻辑手段

1.语法手段

8.(2010 陕西卷) I then 32 (realized ) I had no right to place myself above 33 just because he was busking. 33. A. it B. all C. him D. them

语法-指代

9.(2010天津卷) “ As a policeman,I saw 27 there was violence, drugs were always behind it. They have a damaging 28(impact) on the kids. ” 27. A. where C. as B. unless D. whether

语法-句型

2.逻辑手段
顺序关系
并列关系 让步关系

逻辑手段
因果关系 解释关系 转折关系



10.(2010江苏卷) Then she looked at my father and replied,“You are 40(wrong). This is not the worst boy at all, 41 the smartest one who hasn’t yet found an outlet(释放的途径)for his enthusiasm.”

41. A.but

B.so

C.and

D.or

语境-转折关系、搭配

11.(2010湖南卷) Bean is a white

dog, quite handsome and very
38 .

38. A. smart B.sweet C.slow D.shy

语境-同类并列关系

12.(2010安徽卷) First of all, a pen should fit comfortably in your hand, ... Then the writing point of the pen…… 52 ,the pen should make a thick, dark line. 52. A. Meanwhile B. Generally C. Afterwards D. Finally

语境-顺序关系

小结:完型填空考查内容
语篇信息(语境理解) 词汇手段
原 词 复 现
同 义 近 义 复 现 .

语法手段
指 句 语 法 项 代 型 目 转 折 关 系

逻辑手段
并顺 列序 关关 系系 让 步 关 系 解 释 关 系 因 果 关 系

解题过程中应做到
Problem solving strategies 注意上下文语境(context) 了解常识背景(common sense) 掌握习惯搭配(phrases & idioms) 运用词义辨析 (comparison) 运用语法分析(grammar analysis) 运用逻辑分析 (logical analysis ) 运用排除法 (exclusive method )

实战演练

细读首句,找出相关信息
Once upon a time the colors of
the world started to quarrel.
故事发生的时间,人物、 1.叙事文 事件等背景情况。

Key to the cloze test
36-40: 41-45: 46-50: 51-55: DACBA DCCDB ACBAD DDCBA

Once upon a time the colors of 36.A.stay B.leave C.go out D.die the world started to quarrel. Green said, "Clearly I am the most 语境-词义 37. A.earth B.moon important. I am the sign of life and C.star D.sun hope. I was chosen for grass, trees 38.A.That is and leaves. Without me, all animals 语法-强调句 B.I am would 36 ." 语境-转折.对比.排除 C.It is Blue interrupted, "You only think 语境-词义 D.This is about the 37 , but consider the sky 39.A.anything and the sea. 38 the water that is B.nothing C.something the basis of life and drawn up by the D.Everything clouds from the deep sea.Without my peace, you would all be 39 ." 40.A.warmth B.sadness Yellow chuckled (笑道), "You C.depression are all so serious. I bring laughter, D.anxiety 语境-同类并列 fun, and __40__ into the world."

41.A.usual Orange started next to blow 语境-转折对比 B.normal her trumpet, "I am the color of C.common health and strength. I may be 语境-常识 D.scarce 41 , but I am precious for I serve 42.A.at midnight B.at noon or at night the needs of human life. When I C.at sunrise or sunset fill the sky 42 , my beauty is so D.during the day striking that no one gives another 43.A.gift B.honor C.thought D.respect 43 to any of you.” 语境-搭配 44.A.for more Red could stand it 44 and he B.any more shouted out, "I am the ruler of all C.very much of you. I am the color of danger D.no longer 45.A.turn to and of bravery. I am willing to B.fight for 45 truth. I am also the color of C.help with passion and of love." D.bend over 语境-搭配
语境-词义

46.A.superiority Then came Purple and Indigo B.disadvantages (深蓝). … 语境-近义词再现 C.inferiority The colors went on boasting, D.weakness each convinced of his or her own 47.A.gently B.quietly __46__. Their quarreling became 语境-词义. C.violently louder and louder. Suddenly there D.peacefully 常识 was a startling flash of bright 48.A.with care lightening thunder. Rain started to B.in fear pour down __47__. The colors 语境-词义 C.by chance crouched(蜷缩) down __48__, D.on purpose drawing close to one another 49.A.among for comfort. B.by C.for 语境-词义辨析 In the midst of the clamor (叫 D.against 50.A.others 嚷), rain began to speak, “You B.themselves foolish colors, fighting 49 C.the other yourselves, each trying to dominate D.the rest (支配) 50 语境-搭配 .

51.A.equal and simple B.ordinary and similar Don't you know that you were each made for a special C.more or less D.unique and different purpose, 51 ? Join hands 52. A.each other with 52 and come to me." 语境-搭配 B.me C. them Doing as they were told, D. one another the colors 53 and joined 53.A.combined 近义词再现 hands. They formed a B.separated colorful rainbow. From then C.united D.divided on, whenever a good rain 54.A.cleans B. washes C.brightens 54 the world, a rainbow 常识 D.dampens appears in the sky. They 55.A.appreciate remember to 55 one B.quarrel with another. C.ignore D.praise 语境-词义

近义词再现


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