高一英语下学期词汇和语法重难点


广东省揭阳第三中学高一英语下学期词汇和语法重难点
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. ought to 应当,应该 keep up with 跟上,赶上 plenty of 许多,大量的(作定语) in plenty 许多,丰富(作状语) make a choice 做出选择 now and then 偶尔,时而 prepare a dish 做一道菜 a balance diet 均衡饮食 be/go on diet 在节食

no longer 不再 10. be based on/upon 以…为基础 take medicine 吃药 11. be harmful to 对…有害 12. offer advise about/on 提…的建议 13. lose weight 减肥 14. cut …into pieces 把…切碎 15. gain weight=put on weight 增肥 16. make up for 补偿 17. get along with 和…相处 18. put up with 忍受 19. go for sb 对某人也一样 20. in large amount 大批地 21. be short of=be lacking of 缺乏,缺少 22. do up one’s hair 做发型 23. refer to 查阅,提到 24. settle down 定下心来,安家落户 25. settle up 付清,结账 26. settle for 勉强同意,接受 27. settle in(使)习惯(环境等) 28. settle on 定居(短暂停留) of high/good quality 高质量的 29. sign an agreement with…与…达成协 30. in relation to 与…有关的



31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74. 75. 76. 77. 78. 79. 80. 81. 82. 83. 84. 85. 86. 87. 88.

but for 要不是 thanks to 由于,幸亏 apart from 除…之外 hand down 传下来 and so on 等等 in ancient time 在古代 go against 违背 guide to(介词)指导 of (no) effect(无)效 take effect 生效,奏效 bring/carry…into/to effect 实施 come/go into effect 开始实施 depend on/upon 依靠 That/It (all) depends.这很难说。 i. stand for 代表 in condition 身体好 out of condition 身体不好 on condition that….如果,条件是 in/under favorable conditions 在有利形势下 bring in 引进,赚钱 a) year after year 年复一年 Point out 指出 make use of 利用 tongue twister 绕口令 a) be on good terms (with sb.)关系好 drive off 开走,击退 look on…as 把…看作… Ahead of 更前,更早 give sb a hand 给某人帮助 Get through 通过,到达 tear down 拆毁 Hold up 举起 Intend to do sth 打算做某事 Intend to have done 本想做(而没能做) Intend…for…=be intended for…供……用 Dress up 打扮,装饰 in one’s opinion 依某人之见 Play a trick on sb 开某人玩笑 take in 收容,理解,包含,欺骗 Be determined to do sth 下决心做…… Gift money 压岁钱 fire works 鞭炮 Save money 存钱 ask for a day off 请一天假 Happen to meet 碰巧遇见 be jealous of sb 嫉妒某人 Believe in 信仰 dress up as 装扮成,打扮成 Do crime 犯罪 light up 照亮 Do honor to sb=do sb honor 礼遇某人,对某人表示敬意 On purpose=by accident 故意地 care for 喜欢,照顾 Make fool of 愚弄 in other words 换句话说 hope for 对…希望 seek after 追求 A similar to B A 和 B 相似 take on 呈现 Or else 或者 personal affair 隐私
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89. Date back to =date from 始于,追溯到 90. Appreciate good food 欣赏美味 91. suit…to…使…适合于 … 92. Be suit to/for 适合于… 93. In all direction 朝四面八方 94. in …direction=in direction of 朝…的方向 95. under the direction of 在…的指导下 96. Follow one’s directions 遵照某人的指示 97. Be angry with sb for sth…因…生某人的气 98. be likely to 很有可能 99. make fun of 取笑 100.No laughing matter 不是闹着玩的 101.exist…in 存在于… 102.Get into contact with sb 与某人取得联系 103.Make contact with sb 与某人联络 104.(be) in contact with 与…有交往 105.lose/break contact with 与……失去联系 106.go ahead 前进 107.be crazy about 对…着迷 108.go into details 细说 109.in detail 详细地 110.focus…on…把…集中于… 111.occur to sb 使某人突然想到 112.fell down 感到闷闷不乐 113.in a hurry 匆忙地 114.accept …as 认为…是… i. bring on 引发 115.make oneself done 使…被… 116.make conversation 交谈 117.have/hold a co nversation with 与……交谈 118.be in conversation with 与…谈话中 119.divide…into..把…分成… 120.ivide between/among…把…分给… 121.achieve success 获得成功 122.an injured look 一副受冤的表情 123.call on 拜访(某人) a) call at 拜访(某地) 124.bring back 拿回来,使恢复 125.day and night 日日夜夜地 126.pay off 还清 127.at most 至多 128.a number of 许多 129.a great deal of 许多 i. pick out 挑 出,辨别出 130.test on 在…做实验 131.be continued 未完待续 132.pay back 偿还,报复 133.sth of good/poor quality 质量好的… 134.would rather 宁愿 135.after all 毕竟 136.be well worth 很值得 137.without luck 运气不好 138.in the hope of doing…抱着…的希望 139.bring about 引起,导致 140.bring up 哺育 141.belong to sb/sth 属于… 142.without limit 无限地 143.run/take a risk 冒险 144.limit…to …把…限制在… a) at risk 处于危险中 145.at any risk 不顾一切
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146.at the risk of 冒着…的危险 147.to one’s sorrow 使…悲伤的是 148.than usual 比平常… 149.badly off 贫穷的 150.bear/take one’s share of…负担…的部分 151.keep…at harm’s length 保持…的距离 152.a total failure 一个彻底的失败者 153.save the situation 收拾局面 154.trade in 以交方式购入 155.trade with 从事贸易 156.be popular with 受…的欢迎 157.culture of mind and body 身心修养 158.(be)of (no) use 有(无)用 159.put…to use 利用 160.to one’s knowledge 据某人所知 161.express oneself 表达自己的意思 162.tell…from…把…和…分开 163.means of transport 交通方式 164.together with=as well as 也 165.against to the wall 靠着墙 166.without a sound 悄无声息地 167.pull out 把…拉上来 168.not later than 不迟于 169.get close to 接近… 170.just as 恰如 171.without turning a hair 毫不畏惧 172.in disorder 混乱 173.be familiar with 熟悉 174.rushed off one’s feet 忙于工作 175.at work 忙于工作 176.n the go 奔波 177.go through with 完成 178.at one go 一口气 179.miss one’s turn 错过 180.be devoted to sb 喜欢某人 181.to…degree 达到…程度 182.succeed in doing sth 成功的做了某事 183.do about 处理 应付 184.clear away 清除打扫 185.go out 熄灭 186.push open 推开 187.be up to sb 由某人决定 188.tire out 筋疲力尽 189.not a bit = not at all 一点也不 190.there is no doubt 毫无疑问 191.be willing to do = like to do 愿意 192.a number of 若干 ,一些 193.the rule of conduct 行为准则 194.charge a pipe 给烟斗塞烟 195.be charged with 充满…… 196.tear at sth 撕扯…… 197.fasten…to…把…拴在…上 198.explain sth to sb = explain to sb sth 向某人解释某事 199.fasten one’s eyes to sb 眼睛盯着某人 200.in tears 哭泣,掉泪 201.end in a tie 以平局结束 202.in your own words 用你自己的话 203.come into use 开始使用 204.can’t help doing 忍不住 205.stop…from doing 阻止 206.leave sth done 让……做……
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207.by choice 出于选择 208.for choice 要选就选 209.ask after sb 问候某人 210.give away 赠出,让出 211.set the scene 为某事做准备 212.full dress 盛装 213.a pieces of jewellery 一件珠宝 214.look about/around 警戒 215.look on 旁观 216.look through 浏览 217.look up to 尊敬 218.act for 代理 219.act on/upon 对……起作用 220.know of 听说过 221.by chance 偶然地 222.by mistake 由于疏忽 223.be in use 在使用中 224.make a great discovery 完成一项重大任务 225.bring…to use= put …to use 加以利用 226.call sb names 谩骂某人 227.in the name of 以……的名字 228.in change 主管 229.free of change 免费 230.at one’s own change 自费 231.out of control 失去控制 232.be particular about 对…挑剔 a) knock over 撞翻 233.lay down one’s life 献出生命 234.a man of name 知名人士 235.turn in 归还,交上 236.carry on research 进行研究 237.take up research 开始研究 238.act against 违反 239.speak against 发表抨击 240.little by little 逐渐地 241.out of date 这时的 242.up to date 最新式的 243.to date 到目前为止 put a date to sth 注明日期 244.set/fix the date 确定日期 245.keep a date 赴约 246.go off 出发,爆发(机器等停止) 247.go into 详细调查 248.go by 走过,…… 流逝 249.go beyond 超越 250.go about 四处走走,开始 251.around the corner 即将来临,在拐角处 252.die down 平息 253.come to terms with 甘心忍受 254.what else 而且 255.be about to 即将开始 256.at the top of one’s voice 大声地 257.self rescue 自救 258.be mean with 对…吝啬 259.take shelter 躲避 260.work with sb 对……起作用 261.smell of 闻出……的味道 262.break up 弄碎 263.hold up 阻滞 264.a threatening letter 恐吓信 265.somehow or other 设法,想办法
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266.admire sb as…钦佩某人是… 267.admire sb for sth 钦佩某人的… 268.admire oneself in the mirror 照镜子 269.rise/come to fame 成名 270.opposite to 在…对面 271.to one’s regret 使某人遗憾的是 272.be surrounded with/by 被…围绕 273.get/gain/take possession of 占有,占领 274.make up 组成,构成,凑足 275.turn to 转向,求助于 276.go sailing 驾船航行 277.go camping 宿营 278.come into one’s possession 被某人占有 279.in one’s possession=in the possession of sb 被某人据有 280.(be) in possession of 持有,拥有 281.零 散 记 忆 282.only+介词短语(方式状语)+倒装句 283.e.g.: Only in this way will we be ready for the… 284.the only/just/very/first + n.+ that(who)+定从 285.当 n.为物时只用 that,当 n.为人时只用 who。 286.be of + 抽象名词,表“具有……” 287.begin to do 和 begin doing a) 一般情况下意思相同,但 1)begin 为现在进行时时; 288.2)当 begin 后为 think,realise 等类词时,只用 to do。 289.Make it (F.O) +adj+to do sth. 290.To,on,in 在表方位时: a) on 表接壤 2)in 在范围之内 3)to 不接壤 291.7、hope: 1)+that-clause 2)+to do 3)+for sth 292.a/the way (that) +定语从句 293.to do 和 v-ing 做主语和宾语: 294.to do 一次性和具体性;v-ing 表经常性延续性 295.so…that… “如此…以致于…”引导结果状从句。 296.So…部分放在句首时,句子要倒装 297.比较:so…that…和 such…that…的句型构成 a) so+adj./adv.+that… such+a(n)+adj.+n.+that… b) such+adj.+U.C.N.+that… 298.such+n.(pl.)+that… 299.with+宾+宾补(形容词、介词短语、副词、分词、不定式) ,在句中状语或定语 300.12、a great many+n.(pl.),当此名词前有限定词如 the ,these,those 等,则用 a great many of 301.13、系表结构 stay+adj. 一直保持某种状态 302.14、only to do sth 这一结构常作结果状语,用以指随即发生的意料之外的事,有“反而,却”之意。 303.15、 advise(n. advice) “建议,忠告” 304. 1)advise+n./pron. 2)advise sb. (not) to do sth 305.3)advise doing sth 4)advise sb.+clause(虚拟语气) 306.16、the reason 与 for 连用表语从句只用 that 引导 307.17、used to: 1. used not to +动词原形=usedn’t to+动词原形 308.did not use to+动词原形=didn’t use to+动词原形 1. used+主+to+动词原形 2. did+主+use to+动词原形 i. It seems to that… 309.18、seem It seems as if/though… i. There seems (to be)… 310.19、Seem,that 和 appear 311.三词后均可加形容词、副词、分词等; 312.appear,seem 后可接 to do ,而 look 后只加 to be 313.look 后只可接 as if 引导的从句,不能接 that 从句 i. 20、accept 314. n./pron 接受…… 1. sb/sth+as+n./adj.把……视为,接受…… 2. that-clause 承认
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315.21、worth 与 worthy 1. n.值多少钱 of sth 值得,配得上 316.be worth+ be worthy + of being 值得做 a) doing 值得的 to be done 值得做 317.22、 a.have sb doing 使某人做某事,表动作一直进行 i. b.have sb do 使某人做某事,表动作完成或可能发生 ii. c.have sth to do 有某事要做,have 意为“有,拥有” iii. d. have sth done 使某事被做,done 表被动动作 318.23、表“许多大量”的几个词组: i. a great/good many b) a large/great/good number of +可数名词 i. a good few/quite few ii. many a iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. ix. x. xi. xii. xiii. xiv. xv. xvi. xvii. xviii. a great/good deal of a large/great amount of quite a little +不可数名词

xix.

a lot of/lots of a large/great quantity of +可数名词或 large quantities of 不可数名词 plenty of 24、keep doing sth.一直干,后跟状态性动词 1. keep on doing sth.反复干……,强调动作的重复 25、It is…for sb to do sth 1. It is…that-clause 26、happen 主(人)+happens+to do It(形主) +(so)happen +that-clause 27、allow(vt.) a. allow+ 名/形 b. allo w+含有不定式的复合宾语 c. allow+动名词 d. allow+sb.+介词短语/副词 28、连系动词的分类: 1. 变化类:become,go,get,grow,fall,turn ect. 2. 感官类:fell,smell,taste,look,sound ect. 3. 显现类:appear,seem,look ect. 4. 状态类:keep,stay,come,stand ect. 29、though 相当于 however ,用于句末。

xx. 30、动词+to 构成的短语: xxi. look forward to 盼望… turn to 求助于, 转向 xxii. pay attention to 注意 stick to 坚持 xxiii. get down to 开始认干 object to 反对 xxiv. belong to 属于 refer to 涉及,谈到 xxv. point to 指向 see to 处理,料理 xxvi. come to 共计,苏醒 reply to 答复 xxvii. agree to 同意 add to 增加 c) devote…to…贡献…给… compare…to…把…比作… 319.高一下学期语法重难点集汇 320.主谓一致 a) 主谓一致是指一个句子的主语和谓语动词保持数的一致关系。一个句子中主谓一致,通常指三个 基本原则:语法一致,即形式上一致;概念一致,即概念或意念上的一致;毗邻一致,即谓语动 词的形式与邻近的名词一致。 b) 语法一致原则 i. 在通常情况下,一个句子的主语和谓语在语法形式上保持一致。即主语为单数形式,谓语也 为单数形式;主语为复数形式,谓语也为复数形式。如: 1. This exercise on English idioms is not easy.这个英语短语练习不容易。 ii. 在“there be”结构中, “be”的单复数取决与后面主语的数.如: 1. There has been little change in this city.这个城市没有多少变化。
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3、 “one of”结构,位于用单数, “two of”结构位于用复数 One of the things I want to do is traveling.我想做的一件事是去旅行。 Two of the boys have lost their way home.有两个男孩回家迷路了。 倒装句的主语在谓语之后,避免误用。 1. Never before has she been to Paris!她以前从未去过巴黎。 c) 概念一致 i. 主语是抽象概念、短语或从句,谓语用单数形式。如: ii. To tell lies is wrong.说谎是不正确的。 (不定式做主语) iii. Keeping the house is a tiring job.管理家务是一件很劳累的事。 (动名词做主语) iv. How this happened is not clear to anyone.(从句做主语) v. 注意: 321.用 what 或 which 引导的主语从句或简单句中的数的概念取决于后面的表语, 因为它们在逻辑上的意义 是相同的。如: 1. Which is your seat?你的座位是哪一个? a) Which are your seats?你们的座位是哪些? 322.单个的分词作主语,不定式作主语,以及主语从句,谓语都用单数,若用连接上述的相同两个成分, 谓语才用复数。 i. 两个或两个以上的主语用 and 和 both 连接时,谓语用复数形式。 ii. and 连接的并列主语指同一人或同一样东西,and 后的名词前没有冠词,谓语用单数;若有, 则用复数。如: 1. My best friend and adviser has changed his mind again.我的密友兼顾问又改变他 的想法了。 2. My friend and the student Sue are in the classroom.我的朋友和那位叫苏的同学在 教室里。 b) 若 and 后面加 not,谓语用单数。如: i. Lilei,and not I, has won the game.是 Lilei 赢了比赛,而不是我。 c) 用 and 连接的单数主语,前面有 each,every,many a,no 等词修饰时,谓语用单数。 d) 复数主语前加 each,谓语仍用复数。 e) no 后面名词为单数,谓语用单数;后为复数,谓语用复数。 f) 毗邻一致 1. 由 not only…but also,neither…nor…,either…or…,or 连接的并列主语,在肯定句 中谓语变化取决于后面的饿主语,在疑问句中取决于前面的主语。如; 2. Either he or I am mistaken.他和我都没错。 3. Either he or you are to go there.不是他就是你要到那儿去。 g) (详见高一下册 P155~P156) 323.虚拟语气 1. 虚拟语气表示说话人的愿望、假设、猜测或建议,而不是事实。虚拟语气是通过句中的 谓语动词的特殊形式来表现的,因此,掌握虚拟语气中的各种谓语动词的形式变化,是 掌握虚拟语气的关键。 b) 虚拟语气在简单句中的用法 1. 虚拟语气用于简单句中,一般表示祝愿、命令等。谓语动词要用原形。 c) 虚拟语气在主从复合句中的用法 1. 在状语从句中的用法 ii. 条件句中的用法 iii. 虚拟语气的条件句是用谓语动词的特殊形式来表现与现在、过去事实相反的情况或对将来发 生的情况表示怀疑,和直陈语气条件句中的谓语动词形式以及表达的含义完全不同。虚拟语 气条件句中所用的谓语动词的过去时、过去完成时、过去将来时等,只表示不同的虚拟语气, 和直陈语气的过去时、过去完成时、过去将来时等毫无关系。 iv. 现将虚拟语气的各种具体形式和用法分述如下; a) 表示与现在事实相反的情况 d) ①形式 324.条件从句的动词形式 325.主句的动词形式 326.If I 327.I (we) should (we,you,he,she,it,t 328.You (he,she , +动词 hey)+行为动词的过去 原形或: 式(be 的过去式一般 329.they,it ) would 用 were) 330.所 有 人 称 +might(could)+ 动词原形 331.②用法:
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iii. iv. v. vi.

a) If I had more time, I should study German.(fact:I have no more time, so I shall not study German. ) b) If she were not so busy, she would attend the meeting this afternoon.(fact:she is very busy, so she will not attend the meeting this afternoon.) c) If they didn’t take physical exercises every day, they wouldn’t be so healthy.(fact: they take physical exercises every day, so they are very healthy.) a) 表示与过去誓死相反的情况 d) ①形式; 332.条件从句的动词形式 333.主句的动词形式 334.If I 335.I (we) should 336.You (he,she , +have+ 过去分词或: 337.they,it ) would 338.所 有 人 称 +could(might)+have+ 过 去 分词 339.②用法: a) I would have checked my paper again if I had had more time at yesterday ’ s examination.(fact:I had no more time at yesterday’ s exam, so I didn’t check my paper again) b) You would have already recovered from his illness if he had seen the doctor in good time.(fact: He didn’ t see the doctor in good time ,so he hasn’ t recovered from his illness ) a) 表示与将来事实相反的情况 340.①形式: 341.条件从句的动词形式 342.主句的动词形式 343.If I 347.I (we) should (we,you,he,she,it,th 348.You would + 动词原 ey)+ 行为动词的过去式 形或: ( be 的 过 去 式 一 般 用 349.he(she,it ) would were )通常要与一个表 350.they would 将来的时间的状语连用 351.I 344.If (we,you,he,she,it,th ey)+should 345.+动词原形 346.c. If I (we,you,he,she,it,th ey)+were to+动词原形 352.②用法: a) If it rains tomorrow, our picnic will be put off.(The weather has been changeable these days.) b) If it rained tomorrow, our picnic would be put off.( The weather has beenvery good these days.) c) If it should rain tomorrow, our picnic would be put off.(That would be out of our expectation.) d) If it were to rain tomorrow, our picnic would be put off. (条件从句谓语动词用 were to +动词原形,表示 下雨的可能性极小。Were to rain 和 should rain 都表示“出乎意料之外” , 但 were to 加强表示“当初没想到以后的事”) 353.混合时间条件句的用法: i. 有时条件从句的动作和主句动作发生的 时间不一致。 这时动词的形式, 应根据它所要表达的 具体时间来决定用什么形式。 b) If she ha dn’t trained so hard, she wouldn’t be run so fast.(从句叙述过去,主句叙 述现在。 ) i. (fact: she has trained very hard, so she would able to run fast.) ii. You would speak English well enough if you had practised reading and speaking it every day.(主句叙述现在,从句叙述过去) iii. (fact: You didn’t practice (hasn’t practiced ) reading and speaking it every day, so you can’t speak English well enough.) iv. 在其他状语从句中的用法 c) 主要用于由 as if (as though) 引导的比较状语从句,从句中谓语动词一般用“动词的过去式(be
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变 were )或 had +过去分词。 ” i. 如: ii. She looked as if she were ill.(实际上她没有病,在这里用虚拟语气补语比喻她精神不佳) iii. Xiao Liu speaks English so well as if he had studied in England.(这里用虚拟语气表 现他的 英语说得好) (2) 、在主语从句中的用法: 通常由形式主语 it 引出的主语从句来表达。主语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形” ; 表示“必要” “重要” “奇怪”等意思。 vi. It is necessary that you should clean the workshop after work.下班后你必须清扫车 间。 vii. It is important that we should ask advice of other people about our work.在工作中, 征求别人的意见是很重要的。 354.在宾语从句中的用法(详见《高一上学期英语语法重难点集汇》 ) 1. iv. v.

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